Her pioneering work on gender insists on the equality of the sexes and on the malicious prejudice which has barred women from educational and work opportunities. . Especially bold is her social criticism. Numerous essays condemn the political and religious institutions of contemporary France for their moral defects. Language, literature, aesthetics A prolific poet and translator, gournay devotes numerous treatises to issues of language and literature. . Against the neoclassical purism of certain literary critics of the period, gournay defends the value of neologism and figurative speech. . In particular she defends the aesthetic and epistemological value of metaphor in poetic discourse. . Not only does metaphor please the senses of the reader; it communicates certain truths about God, nature, and the human soul which cannot be expressed through more concise, abstract rhetoric. Defense of poetry provides her most extensive analysis of innovation and simile in the poetic expression of truth.
Against, interpretation and, other, essays, summary
Equality between Men and Women, complaints of obesity Ladies, and, apology for the Writing Women are illustrative of this genre. In 1634 gournay published a collection of her extant writings, called. The Shadow of the damoiselle de gournay. . In subsequent years, she revised and expanded this edition of her works. . Named The Offerings or Presents of Demoiselle de gournay, the last collection of her works was published in 1641. . This edition of her works runs to more than one thousand closely printed pages. Philosophical Themes hbr gournays treatises study numerous philosophical issues. . Her works on literary theory defend the value of figurative speech, especially metaphor, to communicate complex metaphysical truths. Her moral theory reflects the ethics of the renaissance courtier. . Personal honor is the preeminent virtue, calumny the major vice. .
Aeneid was the most celebrated of benefits her translations of the latin classics. As a novelist, she wrote, the Promenade of Monsieur de montaigne, concerning love in the work of Plutarch. . Written in 1588, this early work already raises gournays proto-feminist concerns on the difficulties experienced by women who attempt to be the intellectual peers of men. . Her poetry, modeled after the outdated verse of Ronsard, was less successful. Her successive editions of the works of Montaigne, first published in 1595, enhanced Montaignes reputation among the literary and philosophical elite of Europe. . Her repeatedly revised preface to these editions constituted an apology for the philosophical value and erudition of Montaignes essays. As a formidable essayist herself, gournay focused on several issues: the nature of literature; education of the prince; the nature of virtue and vice; the moral defects of contemporary society. . Especially controversial were her treatises defending the equality between the sexes and the right of women to pursue a humanistic education.
A committed Catholic sympathetic to the anti-Protestant parti dévot, she still maintained close connections to more libertine members of the parisian salons, such as Gabriel naudé and François la mothe le vayer. . She maintained a correspondence with other European female scholars, notably Anna maria van Schurman and Bathsua reginald makin. Having experienced opprobrium as a career woman devoted to professional writing, gournay used her writings to criticize the misogyny of Parisian literary society. . Equality between Men essay and Women (1622) and, complaints of Ladies (1626) defended the equality between the sexes and argued for equal access of both genders to education and to public offices. . In 1626, she published a collection of her previous writings. . A financial and critical success, this collection of her writings was subsequently expanded and reprinted by gournay in 16She died on July 13, 1645. Works, the works of Marie le jars de gournay cover a variety of literary genres. As a translator, she published French versions of Cicero, ovid, tacitus, sallust, and Vergil. . Her multi-volume translation of the.
She defended the centrality of free will against Augustinians who stressed predestination. . She championed a humanistic model of education, with its emphasis on the mastery of classical languages, against more scientific models. . Her work as a controversialist reached its apogee in 1610, when she defended the unpopular Jesuits, whom many French pamphleteers had blamed for the assassination of King Henri iv by a religious fanatic the same year. Despite her controversial reputation, gournay became influential in court circles. . She undertook writing assignments for queen Margot, marie de médicis, and louis xiii. . In recognition of her literary skill, cardinal Richelieu granted her a state pension in 1634. . During the same period she assisted in the organization of the nascent.
Against, interpretation and, other, essays
Shortly after this encounter, gournay wrote her novella. The Promenade of Monsieur de montaigne, concerning love in the work of Plutarch. . As subsequent correspondence and meetings deepened their association, montaigne referred to gournay as his adopted daughter and increasingly shared his intellectual preoccupations with her. After the death of her mother in 1591, gournay found herself in straitened financial circumstances. . In 1593, the widow of the recently deceased Montaigne asked gournay to edit a alzheimer's posthumous edition of the works of Montaigne. . After working for more than a year at Montaignes estate in the bordeaux region, gournay produced the new edition of the works, completed by a long preface of her own composition, in 1595. .
Later in life, gournay would produce numerous new and expanded editions of the works of Montaigne. During the next decades, gournay led a precarious existence in the salons and courts of Paris. . As a single woman attempting to make a living through writing, translation, and editing, she became the object of mockery as well as of fascination in the capitals literary coteries. . Her translations from the latin, especially of Vergil, earned her a reputation as a classical scholar. . Often modeled after Montaignes essays, her treatises took sides in the controversies of the day. . She praised the older poetry of the Pléiade and condemned newer, more neoclassical poetry. .
Moral Philosophy, social Criticism, philosophy of Education, gender and Equality. Reception and Interpretation, references and Further reading, primary sources. Biography, born on October 6, 1565, marie le jars belonged to a minor aristocratic family. . Her father guillaume le jars hailed from a noble family in the region of Sancerre; her mother jeanne de hacqueville descended from a family of jurists. . Her maternal grandfather and paternal uncle had distinguished themselves as writers. .
After her birth, her father purchased the estate of gournay-sur-Aronde; the family name now included de gournay. After the death of her father in 1578, marie le jars de gournay retired with her mother and siblings to the chateau of gournay. An avid reader, she provided herself with her own education, centered on the classics and French literature. . by the end of her adolescence, she had become fluent in Latin, learned at least some Greek, and had become a devotee of Ronsard and the Pléaide poets. . Philosophically, she read Plutarch and other Stoic authors. . Once she discovered the. Essays of Montaigne, she became his enthusiastic disciple, with special interest in the more Stoic strands of his thought. In 1588 gournay personally met with Montaigne; the meeting would establish a lifelong friendship. .
Against Interpretation : And Other Essays - e-books
Her unusual lifestyle as a single woman attempting to earn her living through writing matched her theoretical argument on the right of equal access of women event and men to education and public offices. . gournays extensive literary corpus touches a wide variety of philosophical issues. . Her treatises on literature defend the aesthetic and epistemological value of metaphor in poetic speech. . Her works in moral philosophy analyze the virtues and vices of the courtier, with particular attention to the evil of slander. . Her educational writings emphasize formation in moral virtue according to the renaissance tradition of the education of the prince. . Her social criticism attacks corruption in the court, clergy and aristocracy of the period. . In her writings on gender, gournay marshals classical, biblical, and ecclesiastical sources to demonstrate the equality between the sexes and to promote the rights of women in school and in the workplace. Table of Contents, biography, works, philosophical Themes, language, literature, aesthetics.
11 susan Sontag, Against Interpretation and Other Essays, (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1961. 14 demott, paragraph benjamin (January 23, 1966). The new York times. Retrieved April 14, 2016. robshaw, Brandon (26 September 2009). "Against Interpretation, by susan Sontag". External links edit retrieved from " ". A close friend and editor of Montaigne, marie le jars de gournay is best known for her proto-feminist essays defending equality between the sexes. .
art comfortable and manageable and thus degrading the artists original intention, sontag equally presents a solution to the dilemma she sees as an abundance of interpretation on content. That is, to approach art works with a strong emphasis on form, to reveal the sensuous surface of art without mucking about. 5, reception edit, in a contemporary review of the book, benjamin demott of The new York times praised Against Interpretation as "a vivid bit of living history here and now, and at the end of the sixties it may well rank among the invaluable cultural. Though they bear the stamp of their time, sontag was remarkably prescient; her project of analysing popular culture as well as high culture, the doors as well as Dostoevsky, is now common practice throughout the educated world. And the artists and intellectuals she discusses nietzsche, camus, godard, barthes etc demonstrate that she knew which horses to back." 7 see also edit references edit national book foundation ml#.WI9vblyrL8M. Retrieved missing or empty title ( help ) susan Sontag, Against Interpretation and Other Essays, (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1961. 7 susan Sontag, Against Interpretation and Other Essays, (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1961. 13 susan Sontag, Against Interpretation and Other Essays, (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1961.
The modern style of interpretation is particularly despised by sontag in relation to the previous classical style of interpretation that retrolisthesis sought to bring artworks up to date, to meet modern interests and apply allegorical readings. Where this type of interpretation was seen to resolve conflict between past and present by revamping an art work and maintaining a certain level of respect and honour, sontag believes that the modern style of interpretation has lost sensitivity and rather strives to stroy. Sontag asserts that the modern style is quite harmful; to art and to audiences alike, enforcing hermeneutics - fallacious, complicated readings that seem to engulf an artwork, to the extent that analysis of content begins to degrade, to destroy. Reverting to a more primitive and sensual, almost magical experience of art is what Sontag desires; even though that is quite impossible due to the thickened layers of hermeneutics that surround interpretation of art and that have grown to be recognised and respected. Marxian and, freudian theories, claiming they are aggressive and impious. 3, sontag also refers to the contemporary world as one of overproduction. Material plentitude sic, 4 where one's physical senses have been dulled and annihilated by mass production and complex interpretation to the extent that appreciation of the form of art has been lost. To sontag, modernity means a loss of sensory experience and she believes (in corroboration with her theory of the damaging nature of criticism) that the pleasure of art is diminished by such overload of the senses.
Against Interpretation, and Other Essays epub
From wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, jump to navigation, jump to search. Against Interpretation is a collection of essays by, susan Sontag published in nationalism 1966. It includes some of Sontag's best-known works, including "On Style and the eponymous essay "Against Interpretation." In the last, sontag argues that in the new approach to aesthetics the spiritual importance of art is being replaced by the emphasis on the intellect. Rather than recognizing great creative works as possible sources of energy, she argues, contemporary critics were all too often taking art's transcendental power for granted, and focusing instead on their own intellectually constructed abstractions like "form" and "content." In effect, she wrote, interpretation had become. The book was a finalist for the Arts and Letters category of the. National book award 1, contents, summary edit "Against Interpretation" is Sontag's influential essay within. Against Interpretation and Other Essays that discusses the divisions between two different kinds of art criticism and theory: that of formalist interpretation, and that of content-based interpretation. Sontag is strongly averse to what she considers to be contemporary interpretation, that is, an overabundance of importance placed upon the content or meaning of an artwork rather than being keenly alert to the sensuous aspects of a given work and developing a descriptive vocabulary. She believes that interpretation of the modern style has a particular taming effect: reducing the freedom of a subjective response and placing limitations or certain rules upon a responder.